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Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian

20 января 2009 - unix
Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian

The following resources provide help, advice, and support for Debian. Try your best to use self-help resources before crying out loud in the mailing lists. :)

Note that you can access a lot of documentation on your system by using a WWW browser, via the dwww or dhelp commands, found in their respective packages.

15.1 References

The following references are available for Debian and Linux in general. If their contents conflict with ea/hdbk/ other, always rely more on primary information sources than on secondary ones su/hdbk/ as this document.

  • Installation Manual (primary)

    • Read before installation and upgrade.

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/releases/testing/installmanual (work in progress, sometimes this may not exist)

    • Debian 7 Installation

      Package: Not available in install-doc: Bug#155374

    • File: Debian CD under /doc/

  • Release Notes (primary)

    • A must-read before installation and upgrade even if you are experienced.

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/releasenotes

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/releases/testing/releasenotes (work in progress, sometimes this may not exist)

    • Package: Not available in install-doc: Bug#155374

    • File: Debian CD under /doc/

  • FAQ (secondary)

    • Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian
      Frequently asked questions

    • Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian
    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-faq/

    • Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian
    • Package: doc-debian

    • File: /usr/share/doc/debian/FAQ/index/

  • Debian Reference (secondary)

    • Most comprehensive post-install user manual

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/

    • Package: debian-reference-en

    • File: /usr/share/doc/Debian/reference/

  • APT HOWTO (secondary)

    • Detailed user guide for Debian package management. (Woody)

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/

    • Package: apt-howto

    • File: /usr/share/doc/Debian/apt-howto/

    • Глава Пятнадцать - Support for Debian
  • Securing Debian Manual (secondary)

    • Detailed user guide for securing and hardening of the default Debian installation. (Woody)

    • Debian 7.0 Wheezy - LIVE DVD... XFCE ed.

      Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/securing-debian-howto/

    • Package: harden-doc

    • File: /usr/share/doc/harden-doc/html/securing-debian-howto/

  • dselect Documentation for Beginners (secondary)

    • Tutorial for dselect

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/releases/woody/i386/dselect-beginner

    • Package: Not available in install-doc: Bug#155374

    • File: Debian CD under /doc/

  • Debian Policy Manual (primary)

    • Te/hdbk/nical backbone of Debian.

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/

    • Package: debian-policy

    • File: /usr/share/doc/debian-policy/

  • Debian Developer's Reference (primary)

    • Basic knowledge for developers.

    • The rest of us should also browse this once.

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/developers-reference/

    • Package: developers-reference

    • File: /usr/share/doc/developers-reference/

  • Debian New Maintainers' Guide (primary)

    • Practical guide for developers.

    • Packaging tutorials for the rest of us.

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/maint-guide/

    • Package: maint-guide

    • File: /usr/share/doc/maint-guide/

  • Packaging Manual (Potato)

    • packaging-manual package in Potato. (Moved into appendix of Developer's Reference.)

  • Unix-style manual pages (primary)

    • man package-name

  • GNU-style info pages (primary)

    • info package-name

  • Package-specific documents (primary)

    • Find them under /usr/share/doc/package-name

  • LDP: Linux Documentation Project (secondary)

    • General Linux HOWTOs and mini-HOWTOs

    • Web: http://www.tldp.org/

    • Package: doc-linux-text

    • File: /usr/share/doc/HOWTO/

  • DDP: Debian Documentation Project (secondary)

    • Debian-specific manuals

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/doc/

  • Debian Developers' Corner (secondary)

    • Key information for Debian developers

    • Insightful for end users

    • Web: http://www.debian.org/devel/

  • Source code (absolutely primary)

    • No one can argue with this :-)

    • Download source code following Начальный код, раздел 2.1.15

The following references are available for Unix in general. Please note that there are some minor differences between different Unix systems. Device names and init methods need extra attention.

  • The UNIX Programming Environment

    • The book to read to learn about how UNIX works.

    • By B. W. Kernighan and R. Pike

    • Published by Princeton Hall Software Series

  • The C Programming Language (second edition)

    • The book to read to learn about ANSI C.

    • By B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Rit/hdbk/ie

    • Published by Princeton Hall Software Series

  • UNIX Power Tools

    • The book to read to learn Unix tips.

    • By Jerry Peek, Tim O'Reilly, and Mike Loukides

    • Published by O'Reilly and Associates

  • Essential System Administration (second edition)

    • The book to read to learn about Unix system administration for many Unix flavors.

    • By Aeleen Fris/hdbk/

    • Published by O'Reilly and Associates

  • Bell Labs: Computing Sciences Resear/hdbk/

    • Ri/hdbk/ ar/hdbk/ive of Unix history

    • Main: http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/

    • Selected te/hdbk/nical reports: http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr/

    • Some papers: http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/papers/

  • Online Linux general support resources

    • Debian Planet

    • debianHELP

    • Linux.com

    • The Linux Home Page at Linux Online

    • Red Hat (commercial Linux vender) (RPM, Sys-V init)

    • SuSE, Inc. (commercial Linux vender) (RPM, Sys-V init)

    • Slackware (TGZ, BSD-style init)

  • Online general Unix guide resources

    • A UNIX Introductory Course from Ohio State University

    • UNIXhelp from The University of Edinburgh

    • Unix / Programming Information

    • comp.unix.questions FAQ

    • comp.unix.user-friendly FAQ

    • FreeBSD Documentation

    • The FreeBSD Handbook


    • The Unix Heritage Society

  • Free software project home pages

    • GNU Project

    • The Linux Documentation Project

    • The Linux Kernel Ar/hdbk/ives

    • The XFree86 Project, Inc

    • GNOME

    • K Desktop Environment

    • GNU software at Red Hat

    • Мозилла

    • FreeBSD

    • OpenBSD

    • NetBSD

15.2 Finding the meaning of a word

Many words used in Debian are cryptic jargon or acronyms. The following will solve most questions:

  1. $ dict put-a-weird-word-here

15.3 Finding the popularity of a Debian package

Many packages exist in Debian and it is sometimes difficult to know whi/hdbk/ one to try first. See Debian Popularity Contest Results to get insight into what others are using. Also install the popularity-contest package to contribute.

15.4 The Debian bug tracking system

The Debian distribution has a bug tracking system (BTS) whi/hdbk/ files details of bugs reported by users and developers. Ea/hdbk/ bug is given a number, and is kept on file until it is marked as having been dealt with.

You should /hdbk/eck to see whether your bug report has already been filed by someone else before submitting it. Lists of currently outstanding bugs are available on the World Wide Web and elsewhere. See also Программные ошибки в Debian и поддержка, раздел 6.3.1.

There may be many release-critical bug reports marked with FTBFS. This means "Fails To Build From Source".

Insctions for reporting a bug are given at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting.

15.5 Mailing lists

Read at least "debian-devel-announce" (English, read-only and low-traffic) to stay current with Debian.

The mailing lists of most interest to Debian users are "debian-user" (English, open and high-traffic) and other "debian-user-language" lists (for other languages).

For information on these lists and details of how to subscribe, see http://lists.debian.org/. Please /hdbk/eck the ar/hdbk/ives for answers to your question prior to posting and also adhere to standard list etiquette.

If you do not wish to get CCed for the reply to your mailing list posting, use the Mail-Followup-To: header whi/hdbk/ is a very effective measure. This is the informal convention of mailing lists as explained in http://cr.yp.to/proto/replyto/.

15.6 Internet Relay /hdbk/at (IRC)

IRC (Internet Relay /hdbk/at) is a way to /hdbk/at with people from all over the world in real time. IRC /hdbk/annels dedicated to Debian can be found on the freenode IRC network. To connect, you need an IRC client. Some of the most popular clients are X/hdbk/at, Bit/hdbk/X, ircII, irssi, epic4 and KSirc, all of whi/hdbk/ have been packaged for Debian.

Once you have the client installed, you need to tell it to connect to the server. In most clients, you can do that by typing:

  1. /server irc.debian.org

Once you are connected, join /hdbk/annel #debian by typing

  1. /join #debian

To leave /hdbk/annel #debian type

  1. /part #debian

You can quit the irc client by typing

  1. /quit

To send a private message "Hello Mr. Foo" to foo type

  1. /msg foo Hello Mr. Foo

Note that anything you type without the preceding / is sent to the /hdbk/annel as a message.

Note: clients like X/hdbk/at often have a different graphical user interface for joining servers//hdbk/annels.

15.7 Sear/hdbk/ engines

There are many sear/hdbk/ engines that serve documentation related to Debian:

  • Debian WWW sear/hdbk/ site.

  • Гугл: include "site:debian.org" as a sear/hdbk/ term.

  • Гугл Groups: a sear/hdbk/ engine for newsgroups. Include "group:linux.debian.*" as a sear/hdbk/ term.

  • AltaVista

For example, sear/hdbk/ing on the string "cgi-perl" gives a more detailed explanation of this package than the brief description field in its control file. See Программные ошибки в Debian и поддержка, раздел 6.3.1 for related advice.

15.8 Websites

The following are a few random URLs I collected for specific issues.

  • IBM developerWorks: Linux

  • Adrian Bunk's latest packages (back port to stable)

  • Linux on Laptops

  • Xterm FAQ

  • EXT3 File System mini-HOWTO

  • Large File Support in Linux

  • Window Managers for X

  • Linux USB Project

  • SuSE pages for CJK

  • LNX-BBC (Business-card-sized boot CD project)

  • Linux info by Karsten Self (partitioning, backup, browsers...)

  • Backup info HOWTO by Alvin Oga

  • Security info HOWTO by Alvin Oga

  • Various UNOFFICIAL sources for APT

  • Laptop Ethernet Configuration


Osamu Aoki osamu#at#debian.org
Перевод Ильи В. Головко qref#at#yandex

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